The rise in freight passenger transportation is responsible for air pollution, green house gas emissions (especially CO2) and high fuel demand. New engine technology and fuels are discovered and tested throughout the world. Biodiesel, an alternative for diesel, has been seen as a solution. However, the amount of emissions generated by a biodiesel fueled vehicle has not been understood well since most research studies of this kind reported in the literature were conducted in the laboratory. In the present study, emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM) were measured from biodiesel fueled transit buses using an on-road emissions measuring device known as the Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). On-road study is important in terms of understanding the amount of emissions generated under the real traffic and environmental conditions. Emissions were measured on buses fueled with regular diesel (B0), B10 blend (10% biodiesel + 90% diesel) and B20 blend (20% biodiesel + 80% diesel). This paper demonstrates the use of hybrid soft-computing techniques such as the neuro-fuzzy technique for developing emissions prediction models from real-world data. Hybrid soft-computing techniques have been shown to work well in handling data prone to noise and uncertainty, which is characteristic of real-world scenario. Two neuro-fuzzy methodologies were considered in this study: the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and the Dynamic Evolving Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (DENFIS). A brief review of model development, recommended parametric settings, and statistical evaluation of prediction performance of both techniques are discussed. In general, the ANFIS showed better prediction accuracy for the individual emissions compared to DENFIS although the prediction accuracies are comparable.
- models and algorithms