Neural activity in prefrontal cortex during copying geometrical shapes. I. Single cells encode shape, sequence, and metric parameters

Bruno B. Averbeck, Matthew V. Chafee, David A. Crowe, Apostolos P. Georgopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


In drawing a copy of a geometrical shape, a sequence of movements must be produced to represent the sides of the object in the proper spatial relationship. We investigated neural mechanisms of this process by training monkeys to draw (using a joystick) copies of geometrical shapes (triangles, squares, trapezoids and inverted triangles) presented on a video monitor while recording single cell activity in prefrontal cortex. The drawing trajectories monkeys produced were divided into a series of discrete segments, varying in direction and length. We performed a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to identify those copy parameters significantly influencing cell activity. The copied shape (e.g., triangle, square) and the serial position of the segment within each trajectory were the most prevalent effects (in 46% and 43% of cells, respectively), followed by segment direction (32%) and length (16%). Effects of temporal factors (maximum segment speed and time to maximum segment speed) were less frequent. These results demonstrate that prefrontal neurons encode several spatial and sequence variables that define copy trajectories. We also found that specific groupings of significant effects tended to occur together in single neurons. Specifically, single neurons simultaneously processed the serial position of a segment within each trajectory along with the corresponding spatial (but not temporal) attributes of that segment (i.e., direction and length), as well as with the overall shape to which the segments belong. Finally, we discovered that relationships between neural activity and segment serial position were systematic in many instances, described by monotonically increasing and decreasing functions, as well as parabolic functions. These findings indicate that, within the copying task, the serial segment position is a key factor for neural activity in the periprincipalis area of the prefrontal cortex.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-141
Number of pages15
JournalExperimental Brain Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2003


  • Constructional apraxia
  • Copy
  • Motor performance
  • Neural activity
  • Prefrontal cortex


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