Neighbor discovery is essential for mobile devices to find each other before communications. Traditional discovery protocols are constrained by the in-technology communication paradigm. Cross-Technology Communications enable ZigBee nodes to be coordinated by a WiFi node without any hardware changes or gateway equipment, which sheds the light on more efficient neighbor discovery schemes. In this work, we introduce a new direction for neighbor discovery based on Cross-Technology Communication technique and propose a physical-layer technique called NewBee. NewBee takes the advantages of coordinations from a WiFi node to assist ZigBee nodes for neighbor discovery. A simple yet effective Countdown Mechanism is employed so that ZigBee nodes are coordinately waked up according to the beacons in the Countdown Mechanism. We give a rigorous analysis on NewBee and the worst-case discovery latency is significantly reduced from the traditional $O(n^2)$ to $O(n)$, where $n$ indicates the reciprocal of node's duty-cycle. The experimental results show that NewBee only needs 11%, 10%, 2.5%, 2.4% and 4.4% percent of discovery time compared with the state-of-the-art BlindDate, SearchLight, Disco, Quorum, and Birthday protocols with 5% nodes' duty-cycle, respectively.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received January 7, 2020; revised April 27, 2020; accepted July 5, 2020. Date of publication July 9, 2020; date of current version October 22, 2020. This work was supported in part by the project funded by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grants 2018T110505 and 2017M611828, and in part by The Priority Academic Program Development (PAPD) of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions. The review of this article was coordinated by Prof. Y. Ghamri-Doudane. (Corresponding author: Zhijun Li.) Demin Gao is with the College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China, and also with the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 USA (e-mail: email@example.com).
- Mobile network
- cross-technology communication
- neighbor discovery