Negatively buoyant flow in diverging channel. IV: Entrainment and dilution

Thomas R. Johnson, Christopher R. Ellis, Heinz G. Stefan

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22 Scopus citations


A negatively buoyant inflow to a lake or reservoir sinks to the bottom and forms an underflow. In this process, the "plunging flow" entrains ambient water and becomes diluted. The dilution alters the buoyancy and hence the flow behavior of the underflow. Since literature on entrainment by underflows does not include the "plunging process" itself, great uncertainty exists when the initial conditions of underflows have to be estimated. Therefore, the density driven plunging phenomenon is experimentally investigated in a horizontal diverging channel. Entrainment rates are determined from velocity and temperature measurements and related to channel diffuser angle, inflow densimetric Froude number, and inflow channel aspect ratio. The experiments are conducted at inflow channel Reynolds numbers larger than 10,000. Experimental diffuser angles are varied from 3° to 180°, inflow densimetric Froude numbers from 1.8 to 21 and channel aspect ratios from 0.5 to 1.8. The information is of use as input to one-dimensional stratified lake or reservoir water quality models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)437-456
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Hydraulic Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1989


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