Needed: Models of biotechnology intellectual property

E. Richard Gold, David Castle, L. Martin Cloutier, Abdallah S. Daar, Pamela J. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Although never uncontroversial, intellectual property rights in biotechnological innovation are once more the focus of intense debate. The debate has yet to reach any result, largely because of several important errors in the way that various disciplines approach it. These errors include making assumptions without empirical basis and conflating various intellectual property regimes. What is needed is a transdisciplinary integrated method to correct these errors. Such a method can be implemented through the construction of alternative models of intellectual property protection designed to balance the various social, ethical and economic constraints that affect biotechnology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-329
Number of pages3
JournalTrends in biotechnology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2002


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