Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Kurdjumov) feeding on susceptible Triticum aestivum L. leads to leaf rolling, chlorosis and plant death - symptoms not present in resistant lines. Although the effects of several D. noxia (Dn) resistance genes are known, none have been isolated or characterized. Wheat varieties expressing different Dn genes exhibit distinct modes of D. noxia resistance, such as antibiosis (Dn1), tolerance (Dn2), and antixenosis (Dn5). However, the mechanism whereby feeding aphids are perceived, and how subsequent transcriptional responses are partitioned into resistance categories, remains unclear. Here we report on downstream events in near-isogenic wheat lines containing different Dn genes after D. noxia biotype SA1 feeding. Transcripts involved in stress, signal transduction, photosynthesis, metabolism and gene regulation were differentially regulated during D. noxia feeding. Expression analyses using RTqPCR and RNA hybridization, as well as enzyme activity profiling, provide evidence that the timing and intensity of pathways induced are critical in the development of particular modes of resistance. Pathways involved include the generation of kinase signalling cascades that lead to a sustained oxidative burst, and a hypersensitive response that is active during antibiosis. Tolerance is a passive resistance mechanism that acts through repair or de novo synthesis of photosystem proteins. Results further suggest that ethylene-mediated pathways are possibly involved in generating volatile compounds and cell wall fortification during the antixenosic response.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors express their sincere gratitude to the Winter Cereal Trust, the National Research Foundation and THRIP-DTI of South Africa for financial assistance.
This work was supported by the Winter Cereal Trust, the National Research Foundation, the Technology and Human Resources for Industry Programme and the Department of Trade and Industry.
- Aphid feeding
- Expression profiling