Natural convection from a horizontal tube heat exchanger immersed in a tilted enclosure

Wei Liu, Jane H. Davidson, F. A. Kulacki, Susan C. Mantell

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


Heat transfer rates of a single horizontal tube immersed in a water-filled enclosure tilted at 30 degrees are measured. The results serve as a baseline case for a solar water heating system with a heat exchanger immersed in an integral collector storage. Experiments are conducted for isothermal and stratified enclosures with both adiabatic and uniform heat flux boundary conditions. Natural convection flow in the enclosure is interpreted from measured water temperature distributions. Formation of an appropriate temperature difference that drives natural convection is determined. Correlations for the overall heat transfer coefficient in terms of the Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers are reduced to the form NUD = 0.675RaD0.25 for 106 ≤ RaD ≤ 108.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Solar Energy Conference
EditorsJ Boise Pearson, B.N. Farhi
Number of pages10
StatePublished - Dec 24 2002
EventSolar Engineering 2002 - Reno, NV, United States
Duration: Jun 15 2002Jun 20 2002


OtherSolar Engineering 2002
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityReno, NV


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