Infections following orthopedic device implantations often impose a substantial health burden and result in high medical costs. Currently, preventative methods are often employed following an orthopedic implant to reduce risk of infection; however, contamination of the surgical site can still occur. Although antibiotics have demonstrated a substantial reduction in bacterial growth and maintenance, biofilm formation around the implant can often minimize efficacy of the antibiotic. Recently, nanotechnology has garnered significant interest, resulting in the development of several antibiotic delivery strategies that exhibit extended release and increased efficacy. In this review, treatment methods of orthopedic-device-related infections will be discussed and an overview of antimicrobial-based nanotechnologies will be provided. Specifically, nonmetal-, metal- and oxide-based nanotechnologies, incorporating antibacterial strategies, will be discussed.