Named data networking (NDN) is a typical implementation of information-centric networking (ICN), which has been widely investigated in recent years for its potential as the next-generation network architecture. Optical networks are important as the demand for Internet bandwidth is enormous and they can be used to attain extremely high bandwidth. In this article, we study optical named data networking (ONDN), which is a complete solution for NDN deployment over optical networks based on wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to deploy NDN over optical networks. We first introduce the basic network architecture of ONDN, based on which we discuss the intuitive packet routing and forwarding approach in ONDN, and propose an innovative alternative to improve network performance. In our proposed approach, a novel packet type, called a response packet, is proposed to reserve wavelength along the routing path for data transmission. Packet aggregation in ONDN is discussed to improve the efficiency of wavelength utilization. In addition, the optical node structure of ONDN is developed and discussed to support all functionalities proposed in this article.