The use of N-phenylpicolinamide (NPPA) as a ligand in Ullmann-type homocoupling reactions of aryl iodides and bromides in common solvents, such as DMF and MeCN has been successfully demonstrated at room temperature. In addition, this work provided the first example of the homocoupling of an aryl chloride at 82 °C, which is a relatively low temperature when compared to regular Ullmann reaction temperatures. Also, NPPA was successfully employed in base-and heat free Suzuki reactions, including electron rich and poor aryl halides with heteroarylboronic acids in moderate yields.
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- Aryl-aryl coupling
- Copper catalyzed
- Ullmann-type coupling