Rationale: Conventional 3-dimensional (3D) printing techniques cannot produce structures of the size at which individual cells interact. Objective: Here, we used multiphoton-excited 3D printing to generate a native-like extracellular matrix scaffold with submicron resolution and then seeded the scaffold with cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells that had been differentiated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells to generate a human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac muscle patch (hCMP), which was subsequently evaluated in a murine model of myocardial infarction. Methods and Results: The scaffold was seeded with ≈50 000 human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells (in a 2:1:1 ratio) to generate the hCMP, which began generating calcium transients and beating synchronously within 1 day of seeding; the speeds of contraction and relaxation and the peak amplitudes of the calcium transients increased significantly over the next 7 days. When tested in mice with surgically induced myocardial infarction, measurements of cardiac function, infarct size, apoptosis, both vascular and arteriole density, and cell proliferation at week 4 after treatment were significantly better in animals treated with the hCMPs than in animals treated with cell-free scaffolds, and the rate of cell engraftment in hCMP-treated animals was 24.5% at week 1 and 11.2% at week 4. Conclusions: Thus, the novel multiphoton-excited 3D printing technique produces extracellular matrix-based scaffolds with exceptional resolution and fidelity, and hCMPs fabricated with these scaffolds may significantly improve recovery from ischemic myocardial injury.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the following funding sources: National Science Foundation, Award CBET-1445650; Lillehei Heart Institute, University of Minnesota (UMN), High Risk High Reward; Institute for Engineering and Medicine, UMN, Pilot Grant, and NIH RO1 HL 99507, HL 114120, HL 67828, HL 131017, UO1 134764.
© 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- endothelial cells
- myocardial infarction
- tissue engineering