Myoblast differentiation on graphene oxide

Sook Hee Ku, Chan Beum Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

236 Scopus citations


Graphene-based nanomaterials have received much attention in biomedical applications for drug/gene delivery, cancer therapy, imaging, and tissue engineering. Despite the capacity of 2D carbon materials as a nontoxic and implantable platform, their effect on myogenic differentiation has been rarely studied. We investigated the myotube formation on graphene-based nanomaterials, particularly graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). GO sheets were immobilized on amine-modified glass to prepare GO-modified glass, which was further reduced by hydrazine treatment for the synthesis of rGO-modified substrate. We studied the behavior, including adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, of mouse myoblast C2C12 on unmodified, GO-, and rGO-modified glass substrates. According to our analyses of myogenic protein expression, multinucleate myotube formation, and expression of differentiation-specific genes (MyoD, myogenin, Troponin T, and MHC), myogenic differentiation was remarkably enhanced on GO, which resulted from serum protein adsorption and nanotopographical cues. Our results demonstrate the ability of GO to stimulate myogenic differentiation, showing a potential for skeletal tissue engineering applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2017-2023
Number of pages7
Issue number8
StatePublished - Mar 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation (NRF) via National Research Laboratory ( R0A-2008-000-20041-0 ), Converging Research Center ( 2012k001388 ), Intelligent Synthetic Biology Center of Global Frontier Project ( 2011-0031957 ), and the R&D Joint Venture Program .


  • 2D carbon materials
  • Graphene oxide
  • Myogenic differentiation
  • Myotube formation


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