BACKGROUND: We assessed the ability of myeloperoxidase (MPO) to identify the risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients who present with ischemic symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome and have a normal cardiac troponin I (cTnI) value. METHODS: We used Siemens (n = 400) and Abbott (n = 350) assays to measure MPO and cTnI in plasma samples from 400 patients. Event rates (myocardial infarction, cardiac death, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank statistic. RESULTS: At the 30-day follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratios for MACE were 3.9 (P < 0.001) for increased cTnI and 2.7 (P = 0.006) for increased MPO for the Siemens assays and were 5.5 (P < 0.001) for increased cTnI and 2.9 (P = 0.001) for increased MPO for the Abbott assays. Similar findings were observed with 6 months of follow-up. Patients who initially had a normal cTnI value and an increased Siemens MPO value demonstrated a higher rate of MACE at 30 days than those in whom both values were normal (16.1% vs 3.6%, P = 0.002) and 6 months (18.1% vs 5.0%, P = 0.002). Similarly, patients who had an increased Abbott MPO result demonstrated a higher MACE rate at 30 days (12.3% vs 3.9%, P = 0.03) and at 6 months (16.2% vs 5.1%, P = 0.01) than those with normal values. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of MPO and cTnI allowed the identification of a greater proportion of patients at risk for MACE than the use of cTnI alone. Increased MPO values remained predictive of future cardiac events even when the cTnI value was normal.