The t(11;14)(q13;q32) results in up-regulation of cyclin D1 and is the most common translocation detected in multiple myeloma, where it is also associated with a lymphoplasmacytic morphology. We performed an interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) study to determine the clinical and biologic significance of the abnormality when testing a large cohort of myeloma patients. Bone marrow slides from multiple myeloma patients entered into the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group phase III clinical trial E9486 and associated laboratory correlative study E9487 were analyzed using interphase FISH combined with immune-fluorescent (cytoplasmic immunoglobulin-FISH) detection of clonal plasma cells. We used FISH probes that hybridize to the 14q32 and 11q13 chromosomal loci. The t(11;14)(q13;q32) was correlated with known biologic and prognostic factors. Of 336 evaluable patients, 53 (16%) had abnormal FISH patterns compatible with the t(11;14)(q13;q32). These patients appeared to be more likely to have a serum monoclonal protein of less than 10 g/L (1 g/dL) (28% vs 15%, P = .029) and a lower plasma cell labeling index (P = .09). More strikingly, patients were less likely to be hyperdiploid by DNA content analysis (n = 251, 14% vs 62%, P < .001). Patients with the t(11;14)(q13;q32) appeared to have better survival and response to treatment, although this did not reach statistical significance. Multiple myeloma with the t(11;14)(q13;q32) is a unique subset of patients, not only characterized by cyclin D1 up-regulation and a lymphoplasmacytic morphology, but is also more frequently associated with small serum monoclonal proteins and is much less likely to be hyperdiploid. These patients do not have a worsened prognosis as previously thought.