Long-term survivors after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) for lymphoma or Hodgkin's disease are known to have a high risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), but the risk of MDS is not clear for patients transplanted for myeloma. We reviewed the outcomes for 82 myeloma patients who underwent APBSCT at our center. The group included 47 men and 35 women of median age 56 years (range: 37-74 years). Median time from diagnosis to APBSCT was 8.2 months (range: 2.6-86.1 months). Before coming to transplantation, 28% had received oral melphalan (MEL), 98% received other chemotherapy and 34% received radiation. A single APBSCT was provided for 68, and 32% underwent APBSCT more than once. High-dose MEL alone was used as the preparative regimen for 83%, and the remainder received at least one APBSCT with a more intensive preparative regimen. Ten patients (12%) developed MDS. The 5-year cumulative incidence is 18% (95% confidence interval, 9-30%). There were no demographic factors associated with an increased risk of developing MDS. Median survival after the diagnosis of MDS was 18 months. There is a relatively high risk of MDS after APBSCT for myeloma, and optimal therapy has not been established for these patients.