Although peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis secondary to mycobacterium is rare, the treatment is challenging and outcomes remain poor. We report the first case of PD-associated peritonitis secondary to Mycobacterium septicum. The patient is a 53-year-old Caucasian man who developed end-stage kidney disease due to systemic sclerosis. He was initially started on intermittent hemodialysis and was then switched to PD 10 months later. He presented with generalized abdominal pain and an increase in the number of nucleated cells and neutrophils in the dialysate effluent sample (854 total nucleated cells/µL and 512 neutrophils/µL). Ten days later, the fluid grew M. septicum, a rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). Once the organism was identified, he was treated with moxifloxacin and doxycycline, and the PD catheter was removed. Antibiotics were adjusted due to sensitivities profile and side effects, and he completed 4 months of antibiotic treatment with decreasing cell counts and negative PD fluid cultures. This case highlights the growing list of organisms responsible for NTM peritonitis and complexity of care in the patient with NTM peritonitis.
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- M. septicum
- Mycobacterium septicum
- nontuberculous mycobacterium