Mutations at the SPINDLY locus of Arabidopsis alter gibberellin signal transduction

Steven E. Jacobsen, Neil E. Olszewski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

377 Scopus citations


Three independent recessive mutations at the SPINDLY (SPY) locus of Arabidopsis confer resistance to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. Relative to wild type, spy mutants exhibit longer hypocotyls, leaves that are a lighter green color, increased stem elongation, early flowering, parthenocarpy, and partial male sterility. All of these phenotypes are also observed when wild-type Arabidopsis plants are repeatedly treated with gibberellin A3 (GA3). The spy-1 allele is partially epistatic to the ga1-2 mutation, which causes GA deficiency. In addition, the spy-1 mutation can simultaneously suppress the effects of the ga1-2 mutation and paclobutrazol treatment, which inhibit different steps in the GA biosynthesis pathway. This observation suggests that spy-1 activates a basal level of GA signal transduction that is independent of GA. Furthermore, results from GA3 dose-response experiments suggest that GA3 and spy-1 interact in an additive manner. These results are consistent with models in which the SPY gene product regulates a portion of the GA signal transduction pathway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)887-896
Number of pages10
JournalPlant Cell
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1993


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