Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be an effective treatment for movement disorders and it is now being extended to the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that DBS stimulation targets dependent brain network effects, in networks that respond to stimulation. Characterizing these patterns is crucial for linking DBS-induced therapeutic and adverse effects. Conventional DBS-fMRI, however, lacks the sensitivity needed for decoding multidimensional information such as spatially diffuse patterns. We report here on the use of a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to demonstrate that stimulation of three DBS targets (STN, subthalamic nucleus; GPi, globus pallidus internus; NAc, nucleus accumbens) evoked a sufficiently distinctive blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activation in swine brain. The findings indicate that STN and GPi evoke a similar motor network pattern, while NAc shows a districted associative and limbic pattern. The findings show that MVPA could be effectively applied to overlapping or sparse BOLD patterns which are often found in DBS. Future applications are expected employ MVPA fMRI to identify the proper stimulation target dependent brain circuitry for a DBS outcome.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by grants from the Grainger Foundation and Hanyang University, South Korea (HY-201900000002814). We are sincerely grateful to Dr. Kendall H. Lee for his support regarding the experiments.