Multisite validation of cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay and quantification by laser thermal contrast

David R. Boulware, Melissa A. Rolfes, Radha Rajasingham, Maximilian von Hohenberg, Zhenpeng Qin, Kabanda Taseera, Charlotte Schutz, Richard Kwizera, Elissa K. Butler, Graeme Meintjes, Conrad Muzoora, John C. Bischof, David B. Meya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cryptococcal meningitis is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the need for data for a rapid, point-of-care cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA), we assessed diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, CRAG latex agglutination, India ink microscopy, and CRAG LFA for 832 HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis during 2006-2009 (n = 299) in Uganda and during 2010-2012 (n = 533) in Uganda and South Africa. CRAG LFA had the best performance (sensitivity 99.3%, specificity 99.1%). Culture sensitivity was dependent on CSF volume (82.4% for 10 μL, 94.2% for 100 μL). CRAG latex agglutination test sensitivity (97.0%-97.8%) and specificity (85.9%- 100%) varied between manufacturers. India ink microscopy was 86% sensitive. Laser thermal contrast had 92% accuracy (R = 0.91, p<0.001) in quantifying CRAG titers from 1 LFA strip to within <1.5 dilutions of actual CRAG titers. CRAG LFA is a major advance for meningitis diagnostics in resource-limited settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-53
Number of pages9
JournalEmerging infectious diseases
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

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