The discovery of antibiotics is one of the most important advances in the history of humankind. For eighty years human life expectancy and standards of living improved greatly thanks to antibiotics. But bacteria have been fighting back, developing resistance to our most potent molecules. New, alternative strategies must be explored as antibiotic therapies become obsolete because of bacterial resistance. Mathematical models and simulations guide the development of complex technologies, such as aircrafts, bridges, communication systems and transportation systems. Herein, models are discussed that guide the development of new antibiotic technologies. These models span multiple molecular and cellular scales, and facilitate the development of a technology that addresses a significant societal challenge. We argue that simulations can be a creative source of knowledge.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act grant GM086865 ) and grants from the National Science Foundation ( CBET-0644792 ) with computational support from the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI) . Support from the University of Minnesota Digital Technology Center and the University of Minnesota Biotechnology Institute is also acknowledged.