This study examined HIV risks in the multiplex crack-smoking and sexual networks of incarcerated drug-using men who have sex with men (MSM) and their associates. We estimated the associations between the network members’ incarceration, self-reported HIV infection, and trading sex for money. Our analytic sample consisted of 508 crack-smoking or sexual partnerships of 273 high-risk MSM. Network members were specified by (1) crack smoking and sexual behavior or (2) crack smoking only. Longer incarceration of the crack-smoking and sexual network members was associated with self-reported HIV infection (AOR = 1.61, p < 0.05), which extended up to one’s partners’ partners’ partners (AOR = 1.63, p < 0.05). Similar results were found for trading sex (AOR = 2.77, p < 0.05). The findings of the study call for the development of a system-level HIV intervention among former incarcerated MSM and their associates.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study used the dataset collected by social network project funded by the following National Institutes of Health grant: National Institutes of Health, R01DA015025. This study was partly supported by 1R01DA039934 and 1R01MH100021.
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
- Criminal justice involvement
- HIV STI/infection
- HIV transmission networks
- Men who have sex with men
- Network proximity
- Social network analysis
- Three degrees of influence