Multiple variants in XDH and MOCOS underlie xanthine urolithiasis in dogs

Nicole M Tate, Katie M Minor, Jody P. Lulich, James R. Mickelson, Allyson Berent, Jonathan D. Foster, Kasey H. Petersen, Eva Furrow

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3 Scopus citations


Hereditary xanthinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by missense and loss of function variants in the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) or molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MOCOS) genes. The aim of this study was to uncover variants underlying risk for xanthinuria in dogs. Affected dogs included two Manchester Terriers, three Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, an English Cocker Spaniel, a Dachshund, and a mixed-breed dog. Four putative causal variants were discovered: an XDH c.654G > A splice site variant that results in skipping of exon 8 (mixed-breed dog), a MOCOS c.232G > T splice site variant that results in skipping of exon 2 (Manchester Terriers), a MOCOS p.Leu46Pro missense variant (Dachshund), and a MOCOS p.Ala128Glyfs*30 frameshift variant that results in a premature stop codon (Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and English Cocker Spaniel). The two splice site variants suggest that the regions skipped are critical to the respective enzyme function, though protein misfolding is an alternative theory for loss of function. The MOCOS p.Leu46Pro variant has not been previously reported in human or other animal cases and provides novel data supporting this residue as critical to MOCOS function. All variants were present in the homozygous state in affected dogs, indicating an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Allele frequencies of these variants in breed-specific populations ranged from 0 to 0.18. In conclusion, multiple diverse variants appear to be responsible for hereditary xanthinuria in dogs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100792
JournalMolecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Partial support for EF was provided by a National Institute of Health ORIP K01 Mentored Research Scientist Development Award (K01-OD019912). Partial support was also provided by generous donations from Manchester Terrier owners and breeders. The funders had no role in the study design, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors


  • Canine genetics
  • Hereditary xanthinuria
  • Kidney stones
  • Molybdenum cofactor sulfurase
  • Nephrolithiasis
  • Xanthine dehydrogenase


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