Background: Chromatin interactions medicated by genomic elements located throughout the genome play important roles in gene regulation and can be identified with the technologies such as high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), followed by next-generation sequencing. These techniques were wildly used to reveal the relative spatial disposition of chromatins in human, mouse and yeast. Unlike metazoan where CTCF plays major roles in mediating chromatin interactions, in yeast, the transcription factors (TFs) involved in this biological process are poorly known. Results: Here, we presented two computational approaches to estimate the TFs enriched in the chromatin physical inter-chromosomal interactions in yeast. Through the Chi-square method, we found TFs whose binding data are differentially distributed in different interaction groups, including Cin5, Stp1 and Sut1, whose binding data are negatively correlated with the chromosome spatial distance. A multivariate linear regression model was employed to estimate the potential contribution of different transcription factors against the physical distance of chromosomes. Rlr1, Set12 and Dig1 were found to be top positively participated in these chromosomal interactions. Ste12 was highlighted to be involved in gene reposition. Overall, we found 10 TFs enriched from both computational approaches, potentially to be involved in inter-chromosomal interactions. Conclusions: No transcription factor (TF) in our study was found to have a dominant impact on the inter-chromosomal interaction as CTCF did in human or other metazoan, suggesting species without CTCF might have different regulatory systems in mediating inter-chromosomal interactions. In summary, we presented a systematic examination of TFs involved in chromatin interaction in yeast and the results provide candidate TFs for future studies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was partially supported by National Institutes of Health grant [R01LM011177 and R01LM012806]. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Publication of this article was sponsored by the Discretionary Fund to PJ.
© 2018 The Author(s).
- High-throughput chromosome conformation capture (hi-C)
- Spatial disposition of chromatins
- Transcription factor (TF)