Multipath Congestion Control: Measurement, Analysis, and Optimization From the Energy Perspective

Jia Zhao, Jiangchuan Liu, Haiyang Wang, Changqiao Xu, Hongke Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is a promising TCP extension that exploits different Internet paths between a pair of hosts to obtain high aggregate throughput, while it also brings the concern of energy consumption. There has been a lively interest in the design of energy-efficient MPTCP. The research community, however, lacks a comprehensive understanding of which components in an MPTCP congestion control algorithm play the fundamental role in energy efficiency, how various algorithms compare against each other from energy-consuming perspective, or whether there exist potentially better solutions for energy saving. This article takes the first step towards answering these questions. Through realworld MPTCP Linux kernel experiments, we show that the energy consumption is related to three major aspects: average throughput, path delay and different network scenarios. In order to bridge congestion control to the three aspects, we analyze the existing algorithms and capture the essential parameters of multipath congestion control model related to energy efficiency. Then we propose a window increase factor to shift traffic to low-delay energy-efficient paths. To further extend this design, we apply an energy-aware compensative parameter to fit the general hierarchical Internet topology. Our evaluation indicates that the enhanced congestion control module can successfully improve MPTCP energy efficiency without affecting its transmission performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3295-3307
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2023

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  • Congestion control
  • energy efficiency
  • fluid model
  • multipath transport
  • path delay


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