Multimodel Order Independent Component Analysis: A Data-Driven Method for Evaluating Brain Functional Network Connectivity Within and Between Multiple Spatial Scales

Xing Meng, Armin Iraji, Zening Fu, Peter Kochunov, Aysenil Belger, Judith Ford, Sara McEwen, Daniel H. Mathalon, Bryon A. Mueller, Godfrey Pearlson, Steven G. Potkin, Adrian Preda, Jessica Turner, Theo Van Erp, Jing Sui, Vince D. Calhoun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: While functional connectivity is widely studied, there has been little work studying functional connectivity at different spatial scales. Likewise, the relationship of functional connectivity between spatial scales is unknown. Methods: We proposed an independent component analysis (ICA)-based approach to capture information at multiple-model orders (component numbers), and to evaluate functional network connectivity (FNC) both within and between model orders. We evaluated the approach by studying group differences in the context of a study of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data collected from schizophrenia (SZ) individuals and healthy controls (HC). The predictive ability of FNC at multiple spatial scales was assessed using support vector machine-based classification. Results: In addition to consistent predictive patterns at both multiple-model orders and single-model orders, unique predictive information was seen at multiple-model orders and in the interaction between model orders. We observed that the FNC between model orders 25 and 50 maintained the highest predictive information between HC and SZ. Results highlighted the predictive ability of the somatomotor and visual domains both within and between model orders compared with other functional domains. Also, subcortical-somatomotor, temporal-somatomotor, and temporal-subcortical FNCs had relatively high weights in predicting SZ. Conclusions: In sum, multimodel order ICA provides a more comprehensive way to study FNC, produces meaningful and interesting results, which are applicable to future studies. We shared the spatial templates from this work at different model orders to provide a reference for the community, which can be leveraged in regression-based or fully automated (spatially constrained) ICA approaches. Impact statement Multimodel order independent component analysis (ICA) provides a comprehensive way to study brain functional network connectivity within and between multiple spatial scales, highlighting findings that would have been ignored in single-model order analysis. This work expands upon and adds to the relatively new literature on resting functional magnetic resonance imaging-based classification and prediction. Results highlighted the differentiating power of specific intrinsic connectivity networks on classifying brain disorders of schizophrenia patients and healthy participants, at different spatial scales. The spatial templates from this work provide a reference for the community, which can be leveraged in regression-based or fully automated ICA approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)617-628
Number of pages12
JournalBrain connectivity
Volume12
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright 2022, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 2022.

Keywords

  • functional network connectivity
  • independent component analysis
  • intrinsic connectivity networks
  • machine learning
  • multiple spatial scales
  • resting fMRI
  • Brain
  • Rest
  • Brain Mapping/methods
  • Humans
  • Schizophrenia
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

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