Multimodal Non-Surgical Treatments of Aggressive Pituitary Tumors

Tae Nakano-Tateno, Kheng Joe Lau, Justin Wang, Cailin McMahon, Yasuhiko Kawakami, Toru Tateno, Takako Araki

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Up to 35% of aggressive pituitary tumors recur and significantly affect mortality and quality of life. Management can be challenging and often requires multimodal treatment. Current treatment options, including surgery, conventional medical therapies such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists and radiotherapy, often fail to inhibit pituitary tumor growth. Recently, anti-tumor effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as Temozolomide, Capecitabine, and Everolimus, as well as peptide receptor radionuclide therapy on aggressive pituitary tumors have been increasingly investigated and yield mixed, although sometimes promising, outcomes. The purpose of this review is to provide thorough information on non-surgical medical therapies and their efficacies and used protocols for aggressive pituitary adenomas from pre-clinical level to clinical use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number624686
JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
StatePublished - Mar 26 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study is supported by grants from the Graduate School, University of Minnesota (UMF0011528 to TA, Grant-in-Aid 212588 to TA), the University of Alberta (Start-up to TT), the University Hospital Foundation (Medical Research Competition 2019 to TT), and the US National Institutes of Health (AR064195 to YK).

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 Nakano-Tateno, Lau, Wang, McMahon, Kawakami, Tateno and Araki.


  • PRRT (Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy)
  • Temozolomide
  • aggressive pituitary tumors
  • non-surgical therapy
  • pituitary carcinomas


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