DNA adducts are a measure of internal exposure to genotoxicants and an important biomarker for human risk assessment. However, the employment of DNA adducts as biomarkers in human studies is often restricted because fresh-frozen tissues are not available. In contrast, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues with clinical diagnosis are readily accessible. Recently, our laboratory reported that DNA adducts of aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic component of Aristolochia herbs used in traditional Chinese medicines worldwide, can be recovered quantitatively from FFPE tissues. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of our method for retrieval of DNA adducts from archived tissue by measuring DNA adducts derived from four other classes of human carcinogens: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), and N-nitroso compounds (NOCs). Deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 10-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (dG-N2-B[a]PDE); the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP); the HAA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP); and the dG adducts of the NOC 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), O6-methyl-dG (O6-Me-dG) and O6-pyridyloxobutyl-dG (O6-POB-dG), formed in liver, lung, bladder, pancreas, or colon were recovered in comparable yields from fresh-frozen and FFPE preserved tissues of rodents treated with the procarcinogens. Quantification was achieved by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion-trap multistage mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-IT-MS3). These advancements in the technology of DNA adduct retrieval from FFPE tissue clear the way for use of archived pathology samples in molecular epidemiology studies designed to assess the causal role of exposure to hazardous chemicals with cancer risk.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Dr. Frederick A. Beland from the National Center for Toxicology Research/U.S. FDA for generously providing B[a] P-, 4-ABP-, and PhIP-treated CT DNA and Dr. Lisa Peterson from the University of Minnesota for providing CT DNA samples containing O6-Me?dG. Research reported in this article was supported by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health under Award R33CA186795 (R.J.T.) and in part by Cancer Center Support Grant CA077598 (R.J.T.)