This paper develops a multi-stage estimation algorithm for use on an e-scooter for target vehicle trajectory tracking. Previously designed observers for vehicle trajectory tracking lacked some essential features such as the ability to handle variable velocity, or stable performance in the presence of uncertainties in the measurements. To overcome these shortcomings, the original model of the non-ego vehicle is translated into three separate models for speed, orientation, and position. Three stable observers are designed for these models which are all shown to be stable and robust to uncertainties, in addition to requiring low computational effort. The new estimation algorithm outperforms previous observers in both simulations and experimental results. The developed observer can be especially valuable for use with low-cost sensors in collision prediction and avoidance applications.
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- Mathematical models
- Radar tracking