ZigBee is a widely used wireless technology in low-power and short-range scenarios such as the Internet of Things, sensor networks, and industrial wireless networks. However, the traditional ZigBee supports only one data rate, 250 Kbps, which thoroughly limits ZigBee's efficiency in dynamic wireless channels. In this paper, we propose Mrs. Z, a novel physical layer design to enable multi-rate selection in ZigBee with lightweight modification on the legacy ZigBee modules. The key idea is to change the single spectrum spreading length to multiple ones. Correspondingly, to support the rate adaptation to the channel variations, we propose a bit-error-based rate selection scheme, which predicts BER by leveraging the physical properties of ZigBee to calculate the confidence for each symbol in transmission. Then, the receiver selects the rate based on the negative impact on throughput incurred by bit errors and gives feedback to the transceiver. We implement Mrs. Z on USRPs and evaluate its performance in different scenarios. Experiment results demonstrate that Mrs. Z achieves about 1.15, 1.2, and 1.8 × average throughput compared to the classic smart pilot, softrate, and the traditional ZigBee.
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Manuscript received November 28, 2018; revised March 25, 2019; accepted March 25, 2019; approved by IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORK-ING Editor C. F. Chiasserini. Date of publication May 3, 2019; date of current version June 14, 2019. This work was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant 2018YFB1004703, in part by the NSFC under Grant 61672349, Grant 61672353, and Grant 61672349, and in part by the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Scalable Computing and Systems, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. This paper extends our previous work published in IEEE ICNP17 . (Corresponding author: Linghe Kong.) L. Kong, Y. Cao, G. Chen, and M.-Y. Wu are with the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China (e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org).
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- Multi-rate selection
- rate adaptation