Cognitive remediation (CR) is nowadays mainly administered in a computerized fashion, yet frequently supplemented by human guidance. The effects of CR on cognitive, functional and clinical outcomes are consistently reported, yet the response is heterogeneous. In order to resolve this heterogeneity, we employed a multi-outcome meta-analytic approach, examined effects of CR on each outcome category separately and estimated directed effects between three outcome categories. We extracted treatment effects from 67 studies that trained patients with schizophrenia (total n = 4067) using either 1) computerized CR modality alone or 2) in combination with supplementary human guidance (SHG). All three outcome domains were significantly improved by CR with small to moderate effect sizes when assessing outcomes across all studies. The comparison between CR administered with SHG revealed largest effects on the cognitive subdomains of working and verbal memory. Structural equation modeling in the single-study data suggests that cognitive gains trigger restoration of psychosocial functioning which in turn facilitates improvement in clinical symptoms.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Lana Kambeitz-Ilankovic was supported by the EU-FP7 project PRONIA (“Personalised Prognostic Tools for Early Psychosis Management”) under the Grant Agreement No° 602152 . Appendix A
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