Post-transcriptional regulations of mRNA transcripts such as alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation can affect the expression of genes without changing the transcriplevels. Recent studies have demonstrated that these post-transcriptional events can have significant physiological impacts on various biological systems and play important roles in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, including cancers. Nevertheless, how cellular signaling pathways control these post-transcriptional processes in cells are not very well explored in the field yet. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway plays a key role in sensing cellular nutrient and energy status and regulating the proliferation and growth of cells by controlling various anabolic and catabolic processes. Dysregulation of mTORC1 pathway can tip the metabolic balance of cells and is associated with a number of pathological conditions, including various types of cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Numerous reports have shown that mTORC1 controls its downstream pathways through translational and/or transcriptional regulation of the expression of key downstream effectors. And, recent studies have also shown that mTORC1 can control downstream pathways via post-transcriptional regulations. In this review, we will discuss the roles of post-transcriptional processes in gene expression regulations and how mTORC1-mediated post-transcriptional regulations contribute to cellular physiological changes. We highlight post-transcriptional regulation as an additional layer of gene expression control by mTORC1 to steer cellular biology. These emphasize the importance of studying post-transcriptional events in transcriptome datasets for gaining a fuller understanding of gene expression regulations in the biological systems of interest.
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© 2020 The Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.
- Alternative splicing
- Gene expression
- Mammalian target of rapamycin