MRI exploiting frequency-modulated pulses and their nonlinear phase

Taylor Froelich, Michael Mullen, Michael Garwood

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Frequency-modulated (FM) pulses can provide several advantages over conventional amplitude-modulated pulses in the field of MRI; however, the manner in which spins are manipulated imprints a quadratic phase on the resulting magnetization. Historically this was considered a hindrance and slowed the widespread adoption of FM pulses. This article seeks to provide a historical perspective of the different techniques that researchers have used to exploit the benefits of FM pulses and to compensate for the nonlinear phase created by this class of pulses in MRI. Expanding on existing techniques, a new method of phase compensation is presented that utilizes nonlinear gradients to mitigate the undesirable phase imparted by this class of pulses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106779
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
StatePublished - Sep 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grants U01 EB025153 and P41 EB015894 .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.


  • Adiabatic pulse
  • Frequency-modulated
  • MRI
  • Nonlinear gradients
  • Nonlinear phase


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