Recognition of pathogen attack or elicitation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) leads to defense signaling that includes activation of the three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs), MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 in Arabidopsis. Recently, we demonstrated the activation of a fourth MPK, MPK11, after treatment with flg22, a 22 amino acid PAMP derived from bacterial flagellin. Here, we extended the study by examining elicitation with two other PAMPs, elf18 (derived from bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu) and ch8 (N-acetylchitooctaose derived from fungal chitin). Both PAMPs led to rapid MPK11 transcript accumulation and increased MPK11 kinase activity, suggesting that multiple PAMPs (or stresses) can activate MPK11. However, probably due to functional redundancies, bacteriainduced phytoalexin accumulation does not absolutely require MPK11.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding for our research is provided by programs from the German Research Foundation (SFB648), the State of Saxony-Anhalt (Graduate Program, W21040908) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (ProNET-T3, 03ISO2211B). G.B. and J. G are sup ported by a grant from the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, US. Department of Energy (DE-FG02–09ER15670).
- MAP kinase
- Pathogen-associated molecular pattern
- Signal transduction