Mosaicking images: Panoramic imaging for miniature robots

Christian C. Dos Santos, Sascha A. Stoeter, Paul E. Rybski, Nikolaos P. Papanikolopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Two methods of mosaicking images were developed, one for the general case and one for the simple case of a shift between two following images. The general method was evaluated by merging three images into a mosaic. When executed manually, the success rate of the method was 60%. With human assistance in selecting an appropriate number of corners to base the correlation on, the success rate increased to 89%. The operation took four minutes on a Pentium II 450 MHz Linux workstation, with most of this time spent on finding the correspondences. For the simple method, the shift was determined correctly in 95% of the tests runs for less noisy images. For noisy images, the success rate of properly merging all images of a mosaic was 20%. To increase the success rate, a function that determines the noise level was added. If too much noise was detected, the image is discarded and another one taken. This way, the error rate dropped to 10%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)62-68
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2004

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation through awards CNS-0224363 and CNS-0324864, Microsoft Corporation, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Microsystems Technology Office (Distributed Robotics), ARPA Order G155, Program Code 8H20, issued by DARPA/CMD under Contract MDA972-98-C-0008.


  • Miniature robots
  • Mosaicking
  • Omnidirectional camera systems
  • Panoramic imaging


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