More about baryon number violation catalyzed by grand unified monopoles

F. A. Bais, John Ellis, D. V. Nanopoulos, K. A. Olive

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We investigate the large rates for ΔB ≠ 0 processes catalyzed by grand unified monopoles (GUMs). We demonstrate that a Dirac monopole in the exact low energy colour SU(3) × U(1) electromagnetism group can have large ΔB ≠ 0 cross sections. Therefore there are no factors of exp {-8π2/g2}, 1/mx2 or 1/mw2 in the rates for such reactions. Regularizing the Dirac monopole in a specific grand unified theory (GUT) enables one to discuss flavour mixing. We find there is none in simple SU(5) and SO(10) GUTs, and give the low-energy effective ΔB ≠ 0 interaction for more than one fermion generation. We estimate the ΔB ≠ 0 GUM-baryon cross section to be O(10-3 to 10-5)/β GeV-2 where β is the GUM velocity. We discuss how proton decay experiments could look for GUMs, including the expected hierarchy of "decay" modes: B → e+ π ≫ B → μ +K ≫ e+ πμ+μ-, μ+Ke+e-; B{not right arrow}e+K, μ+π, νX and the possibility of seeing a chain of baryon "decays" in a large detector. Astrophysical restrictions on the GUM flux and ΔB ≠ 0 cross sections are studied, and it is found that neutron stars can provide significant but not fatal constraints for β between 10-3 and 10-4. In the unlikely event that GUMs were trapped in the sun there could be an observable flux of O(100) MeV neutrinos at the earth's surface. We speculate on the possibility of trapping GUMs and utilizing the energy released if they catalyze baryon "decays" in large quantities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-219
Number of pages31
JournalNuclear Physics, Section B
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 13 1983

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank G. Barbiellini, R.N. Cahn, D. Cundy, G. Lazarides, J. Preskill, E. Rabinovici, Q. Shaft, L. Sulak, M.S. Turner, M.A. Virasoro and F.A. Wilczek for discussions about the subject of this paper. This work was supported in part by K.A.O.'s NSF/NATO post-doctoral fellowship.

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