Monotherapeutic high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer: Five-year results of an extreme hypofractionation regimen with 54 GY in nine fractions

Yasuo Yoshioka, Koji Konishi, Iori Sumida, Yutaka Takahashi, Fumiaki Isohashi, Toshiyuki Ogata, Masahiko Koizumi, Hideya Yamazaki, Norio Nonomura, Akihiko Okuyama, Takehiro Inoue

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81 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate an extreme hypofractionation regimen with 54 Gy in nine fractions provided by high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer by reporting 5-year clinical results. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2005, 112 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with HDR brachytherapy without external beam radiotherapy. Of the 112 patients, 15 were considered low risk, 29 intermediate risk, and 68 as high risk. The prescribed dose was uniformly 54 Gy in nine fractions within 5 days. Of the 112 patients, 94 also received hormonal therapy. The median follow-up time was 5.4 years. Results: All the patients safely completed the treatment regimen. The 5-year prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure-free, local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rate was 83%, 97%, 87%, and 96%, respectively. The 5-year PSA failure-free rate for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients was 85% (95% confidence interval, 66-100%), 93% (95% confidence interval, 83-100%), and 79% (95% confidence interval, 69-89%), respectively. The significant prognostic factors for PSA failure were the initial PSA level (p = .029) and younger age (p = .019). The maximal toxicities observed were Grade 3 using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, for both acute and late toxicity (6 and 3 patients had acute and late Grade 3 toxicity, respectively). Late Grade 2 toxicity was observed in 13 patients. Conclusion: Monotherapeutic HDR brachytherapy with an extreme hypofractionation regimen of 54 Gy in nine fractions associated with hormonal therapy was feasible, and its toxicity was acceptable. The interim tumor control rate at a median 5.4 years was promising, even for patients with locally advanced disease. This dose-fractionation scheme might be referred to by other terms, such as stereotactic body radiotherapy. Studies with longer follow-up periods and from multiple institutions are needed to confirm the efficacy of this novel approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)469-475
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume80
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2011

Keywords

  • HDR
  • High-dose-rate brachytherapy
  • Hypofractionation
  • Monotherapy
  • Prostate cancer
  • Radiotherapy

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