Background: FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3-ITD) mutations are some of the most common mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and patient outcomes have improved since the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. First, granulocytic differentiation was described in FLT3-positive AML treated with FLT3 inhibitors, and more recently, monocytic differentiation was reported. Methods: Two patients with myelomonocytic cells in their bone marrow were identified during routine follow-up after AML treatment that included FLT3 inhibitors. The bone marrow study was done as standard of care. Results: Both patients had FLT3-ITD+ AML and showed an atypical maturing monocytic cell population and a decrease in the leukemic blast cell population after FLT3 inhibitor therapy. Concurrent genetic testing revealed persistent genetic abnormalities. Conclusions: These cases illustrate monocytic maturation in FLT3+ AML after FLT3 inhibitor treatment. It is critical for pathologists and clinicians to be aware of the differentiation phenomenon, as these patients have persistent molecular abnormalities despite response to treatment and normalization of blast counts.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2019. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- FLT3 inhibitor
- Terminal differentiation
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article