Background. Soluble biomarkers of inflammation predict non-AIDS related morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Exploring associations between plasma biomarkers and cellular phenotypes may identify sources of excess inflammation. Methods. Plasma biomarkers (interleukin 6 [IL-6] level, D-dimer level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP] level, soluble CD14 [sCD14] level, and soluble CD163 [sCD163] level) were measured from cryopreserved samples from the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study). We performed immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells for markers of T-cell and monocyte activation, maturation, and migration. We evaluated associations between cellular phenotypes and soluble biomarkers by Spearman rank correlation and multivariate linear regression. Results. Participants' (n = 670) median age was 41 years, 88% were prescribed antiretroviral therapy, 72% had a plasma HIV RNA load of <400 copies/mL, and the median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 471 cells/μL. After adjustment, CD14++CD16+ monocytes were associated with higher levels of IL-6, hsCRP, and sCD163; associations with IL-6 and hsCRP persisted in persons with suppressed HIV replication. While CCR5+ monocytes positively associated with D-dimer levels, CCR2+ monocytes were inversely associated with hsCRP levels. Conclusions. Plasma inflammatory biomarkers that predict morbidity and mortality were strongly associated with monocyte activation and migration, modestly associated with T-cell maturation, and not associated with CD8+ T-cell activation phenotypes. These findings suggest that strategies to control monocyte activation warrant further investigation.
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© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
- C-reactive protein
- Immune activation