Monoclonal Gammopathy and Its Association with Progression to Kidney Failure and Mortality in Patients with CKD

Janina Paula T. Sy-Go, Simon Moubarak, Lisa E. Vaughan, Nattawat Klomjit, Jason K. Viehman, F. C. Fervenza, Ladan Zand

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Little is known about the prognostic significance of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined and renal significance (MGUS and MGRS) in patients with CKD. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and kidney outcomes of patients with CKD with either MGUS or MGRS compared with those with CKD without MGUS or MGRS. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2013 to 2018. Patients who had both CKD diagnosis and monoclonal testing were identified. Patients were divided into MGRS, MGUS, and no monoclonal gammopathy groups. Cumulative incidence functions and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to model time to event data and to evaluate the association between monoclonal gammopathy status and risk of kidney failure, with death treated as a competing risk. Results Among 1535 patients, 59 (4%) had MGRS, 648 (42%) had MGUS, and 828 (54%) had no monoclonal gammopathy. Unadjusted analysis showed that compared with no monoclonal gammopathy patients, patients with MGRS were at higher risk of kidney failure (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval]: 2.5 [1.5 to 4.2] but not patients with MGUS (HR [95% confidence interval]: 1.3 [0.97 to 1.6]), after taking death into account as a competing risk. However, in the multivariable analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, eGFR, proteinuria, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, the risk of progression to kidney failure (with death as competing risk) in the MGRS group was no longer statistically significant (HR: 0.9 [0.5 to 1.8]). The same was also true for the MGUS group compared with the group with no monoclonal gammopathy (HR: 1.3 [0.95 to 1.6]). When evaluating the association between MGUS/MGRS status and overall survival, MGRS was significantly associated with mortality in fully adjusted models compared with the group with no monoclonal gammopathy, while MGUS was not. Conclusions After adjusting for traditional risk factors, MGUS/MGRS status was not associated with a greater risk of kidney failure, but MGRS was associated with a higher risk of mortality compared with patients with no monoclonal gammopathy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)319-328
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2023 by the American Society of Nephrology.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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