Molybdate treatment and sulfate starvation decrease ATP and DNA levels in Ferroplasma acidarmanus

David J. Baumler, Kai Foong Hung, Cheol Jeong Kwang, Charles W. Kaspar

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5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sulfate is a primary source of sulfur for most microbes and in some prokaryotes it is used an electron acceptor. The acidophile Ferroplasma acidarmanus (strain fer1) requires a minimum of 150 mM of a sulfate-containing salt for growth. Sulfate is assimilated by F. acidarmanus into proteins and reduced to form the volatile organic sulfur compounds methanethiol and dimethyldisulfide. In the absence of sulfate, cell death occurs by an unknown mechanism. In this study, cell viability and genomic DNA and ATP contents of F. acidarmanus were monitored in response to the absence of sulfate or the presence of sulfate and the sulfate analog molybdate (MoO42-). Cellular DNA and ATP contents were monitored as markers of cell viability. The absence of sulfate led to a decrease in viable cell numbers of greater than 7 log10 within 5 days, a > 99% reduction in genomic DNA within 3 days, and a > 60% decrease in ATP within 6 h. Likewise, cells incubated with MoO42- lost viability (decreased by > 2 log 10 in 5 days), extractable genomic DNA (reduction of > 60% in 2 days), and ATP (reduction of > 70% in 2 hours). These results demonstrate that sulfate deprivation or the presence of molybdate have similar impacts on cell viability and essential biomolecules. Sulfate was coupled to cellular ATP content and maintenance of DNA integrity in F. acidarmanus, a finding that may be applicable to other acidophiles that are typically found in sulfate-rich biotopes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-209
Number of pages5
JournalArchaea
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2008

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Ferroplasma acidarmanus Baumler David J. 1 Hung Kai-Foong 2 Jeong Kwang Cheol 2 Kaspar Charles W. cwkaspar@wisc.edu 1 2 1 Cellular and Molecular Biology University of Wisconsin Madison Wisconsin USA wisc.edu 2 Department of Bacteriology University of Wisconsin Madison Wisconsin USA wisc.edu 2008 2 3 205 209 31 10 2008 16 6 2008 2008 Copyright © 2008 This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Sulfate is a primary source of sulfur for most microbes and in some prokaryotes it is used an electron acceptor. The acidophile Ferroplasma acidarmanus (strain fer1) requires a minimum of 150 mM of a sulfate-containing salt for growth. Sulfate is assimilated by F. acidarmanus into proteins and reduced to form the volatile organic sulfur compounds methanethiol and dimethyldisulfide. In the absence of sulfate, cell death occurs by an unknown mechanism. In this study, cell viability and genomic DNA and ATP contents of F. acidarmanus were monitored in response to the absence of sulfate or the presence of sulfate and the sulfate analog molybdate ( MoO 4 2 - ). Cellular DNA and ATP contents were monitored as markers of cell viability. The absence of sulfate led to a decrease in viable cell numbers of greater than 7 log 10 within 5 days, a > 99% reduction in genomic DNA within 3 days, and a > 60% decrease in ATP within 6 h. Likewise, cells incubated with lost viability (decreased by > 2 log 10 in 5 days), extractable genomic DNA (reduction of > 60% in 2 days), and ATP (reduction of > 70 % in 2 hours). These results demonstrate that sulfate deprivation or the presence of molybdate have similar impacts on cell viability and essential biomolecules. Sulfate was coupled to cellular ATP content and maintenance of DNA integrity in F. acidarmanus , a finding that may be applicable to other acidophiles that are typically found in sulfate-rich biotopes. Ferroplasma acidophile sulfate sulfur archaea http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000001 National Science Foundation MCB-9978205

Keywords

  • Acidophile
  • Archaea
  • Ferroplasma
  • Sulfate
  • Sulfur

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