Taxa missing large amounts of data pose challenges that may hinder the recovery of a well-resolved, accurate phylogeny and leave questions surrounding their phylogenetic position. Systematists commonly have to contend with one or two species in a group for which there is little or no material available suitable for recovering molecular data. It is unclear whether these taxa can be better placed using analyses based on morphological data only, or should be included in broader analyses based on both morphological and molecular data. The extinct madtom catfish Noturus trautmani is known from few specimens for which molecular data are unavailable. We included this taxon in parsimony and Bayesian analyses of relationships of madtom catfishes based on a combination of morphological and molecular data. Results indicate that using a combination of morphological and molecular data does a better job at providing a phylogenetic placement for N. trautmani than morphology alone, even though it is missing all of its molecular characters. We provide a novel hypothesis of relationships among Noturus species and recommendations for classification within the group.
- Combined Bayesian analysis