The Homology module within Insight-II was used to model residues 374-420, sequences missing in the coordinates of resolved structure of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin. The modeling was done in two segments. The calmodulin binding region from residues 389 to 420 was modeled based on the structure of two other proteins having calmodulin binding domains with the same 1-8-14 structural motif as calcineurin. The link region (residues 374-389) between the calmodulin binding region and the solved core sequence was generated as a random loop and two residues at the C-terminal end of the sequence were added to the model using the EndRepair function within Homology. The model was refined using the Discover module of Insight-II with energy minimization. The Builder module was used to merge the modeled regions with the solved structure of calcineurin (residues 14-373). A final refinement step was done for the joined calcineurin model. From the model, it was predicted that the calmodulin and cyclophilin binding regions seem to be proximal. Biochemical experiments provided evidence that cyclosporin-A influenced calmodulin binding and activation of calcineurin consistent with overlapping binding regions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by funds from the American Heart Association, Northland Affiliate (Award Number 0256032Z to BLM).
- Molecular modeling