1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a high-volume chemical used in the production of rubber and plastic. BD is a potent carcinogen in mice and a much weaker carcinogen in rats, and has been classified as a probable human carcinogen. Upon metabolic activation in vivo, it forms DNA-reactive metabolites, 1,2- epoxy-3-butene (EB), 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), and 3,4-epoxy-1,2- butanediol (EBD). The molecular dosimetry of N-7 guanine adduct formation by these metabolites of BD in liver, lung, and kidney of B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats exposed to 0, 20, 62.5, and or 625 ppm BD was studied. The adducts, racemic and meso forms of N-7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybut-1-yl)-guanine (THB-Gua), N-7-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)guanine (EB-Gua I), and N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten- 2-yl)guanine (EB-Gua II), were isolated from DNA by neutral thermal hydrolysis, desalted on solid-phase extraction cartridges, and quantitated by LC/ESI+/MS/MS. The number of adducts per 106 normal guanine bases for a given adduct was higher in mice than rats exposed to 625 ppm BD, but generally similar at lower levels of exposure. The THB-Gua adducts were the most abundant (6-27 times higher than EB-Gua) and exhibited a nonlinear exposure-response relationship. In rats, the exposure-response curves for the formation of THB-Gua adducts reached a plateau after 62.5 ppm, suggesting saturation of metabolic activation. The number of THB-Gua adducts continued to increase in mice between 62.5 and 625 ppm BD. In contrast, the less common EB-Gua adducts had a linear exposure-response relationship in both species. Combining the information from this study with previous data on BD metabolism, we were able to estimate the number of THB-Gua that resulted from DEB and EBD, and conclude that most of the THB-Gua is formed from EBD. We hypothesize that most of the ED arises from the immediate conversion of DEB to EBD within the endoplasmic reticulum. This study highlights the need for measurements of the levels of EBD in tissues of rats and mice and for the development of a unique biomarker for DEB that is available for binding to DNA.