Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) increases the release of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in mammals. However, the evolutionary and functional relationships of PACAP, GH, and PRL are not clear. To understand how PACAP is regulated in the turkey, a turkey PACAP (tPACAP) cDNA has been cloned by the combination of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the rapid amplification of cDNA 5′- and 3′-ends. The deduced amino acid sequence of tPACAP-38 and turkey PACAP-related peptide (tPRP) displayed 87-97 and 52-63% similarity when compared to a variety of known PACAP-38 and PRP sequences, respectively. Two major transcripts (1.3 and 3.0 kb) of tPACAP were detected by Northern blot analysis. The highest levels of tPACAP mRNA were shown to be expressed in the hypothalamus, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. In contrast, most of the other tissues tested expressed relatively low steady-state levels of tPACAP mRNA. Alternative splicing of tPACAP resulted in the expression of two different isoforms. The smaller form of tPACAP was expressed in the hypothalamus during early embryonic development and decreased significantly in later stages.
- Adenylate cyclase
- Exon skipping