PURPOSE Very high-risk prostate cancer (PC) is associated with poor response to local and systemic treatments; however, few cases have been molecularly profiled. We studied clinical outcomes and molecular profiles of patients with clinically localized primary Gleason pattern 5 PC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Clinicopathologic features, targeted somatic and germline sequencing, and PTEN, TP53, and ERG status by immunohistochemistry were assessed in patients undergoing surgery from 2005 to 2015; 60 consecutive patients were identified with Gleason score 5 + 4 = 9 or 5 + 5 = 10 PC after radical prostatectomy with available tissue and clinical follow-up. Clinicopathologic and genomic parameters were correlated with biochemical relapse, metastasis-free survival, time to castration resistance, and overall survival using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS Of patients with somatic sequencing data and clinical follow-up, 34% had DNA repair gene mutations, including 22% (11 of 49) with homologous recombination and 12% (six of 49) with mismatch repair gene alterations. Homologous recombination mutations were germline in 82% (nine of 11) of patients. In addition, 33% (16 of 49) had TP53 mutation, and 51% (29 of 57) had PTEN loss. Overall, 43% developed metastasis, with a time to castration resistance of 12 months. On multivariable analysis of clinicopathologic variables, only ductal/intraductal histology (hazard ratio, 4.43; 95% CI, 1.76 to 11.15; P = .002) and seminal vesicle invasion (hazard ratio, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.83 to 14.47; P = .002) were associated with metastasis. Among genomic alterations, only TP53 mutation and PTEN loss were associated with metastasis on univariable analysis, and neither remained significant in multivariable analyses. These data are retrospective and hypothesis generating. CONCLUSION Potentially actionable homologous recombination and mismatch repair alterations are observed in a significant proportion of patients with very high-risk PC at the time of radical prostatectomy. These findings could inform the design of prospective trials in this patient population.
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© 2019 by American Society of Clinical Oncology