## Abstract

This article considers implementation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) using molecular computing and DNA based on fractional coding. Prior work had addressed molecular two-layer ANNs with binary inputs and arbitrary weights. In prior work using fractional coding, a simple molecular perceptron that computes sigmoid of scaled weighted sum of the inputs was presented where the inputs and the weights lie between $[-1,1]$. Even for computing the perceptron, the prior approach suffers from two major limitations. First, it cannot compute the sigmoid of the weighted sum, but only the sigmoid of the scaled weighted sum. Second, many machine learning applications require the coefficients to be arbitrarily positive and negative numbers that are not bounded between $[-1,1]$; such numbers cannot be handled by the prior perceptron using fractional coding. This paper makes four contributions. First molecular perceptrons that can handle arbitrary weights and can compute sigmoid of the weighted sums are presented. Thus, these molecular perceptrons are ideal for regression applications and multi-layer ANNs. A new molecular divider is introduced and is used to compute $sigmoid(ax)$ where $a>1$. Second, based on fractional coding, a molecular artificial neural network (ANN) with one hidden layer is presented. Third, a trained ANN classifier with one hidden layer from seizure prediction application from electroencephalogram is mapped to molecular reactions and DNA and their performances are presented. Fourth, molecular activation functions for rectified linear unit (ReLU) and softmax are also presented.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 9028230 |

Pages (from-to) | 490-503 |

Number of pages | 14 |

Journal | IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems |

Volume | 14 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jun 2020 |

### Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:© 2007-2012 IEEE.

## Keywords

- Artificial neural network (ANN)
- DNA
- fractional coding
- molcular ReLU
- molecular divider
- molecular neural networks
- molecular sigmoid
- molecular softmax
- stochastic logic