Modeling states' enactment of high school exit examination policies

John Robert Warren, Rachael B. Kulick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


We present five frameworks for explaining which U.S. states adopted high school exit examination policies at particular points in time. The frameworks correspond to issues of academic achievement, education spending, economic conditions, racial/ethnic heterogeneity and policy diffusion. Using event history techniques we find that states with higher unemployment rates and higher proportions of racial/ethnic minority youth are more likely to have adopted HSEE policies than otherwise similar states.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)215-229
Number of pages15
JournalSocial Forces
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Both authors contributed equally to the design and implementation of this project, including the execution of the empirical analyses and the drafting of the manuscript. This paper was originally prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of the Eastern Sociological Society, March 2005. Support for this project was provided by the Spencer Foundation’s Major Grants Program and by the University of Minnesota’s Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program. We are also very grateful to Krista Jenkins, Ann Hironaka and Eric Dahlin for their helpful advice and feedback. However, errors and omissions are the responsibility of the authors. Direct correspondence to John Robert Warren, Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota, 909 Social Sciences, 267 19th Ave. South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. E-mail:


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