Modeling pigmented materials for realistic image synthesis

Chet S. Haase, Gary W. Meyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


This article discusses and applies the Kubelka-Munk theory of pigment mixing to computer graphics in order to facilitate improved image synthesis. The theories of additive and subtractive color mixing are discussed and are shown to be insufficient for pigmented materials. The Kubelka–Munk theory of pigment mixing is developed and the relevant equations are derived. Pigment mixing experiments are performed and the results are displayed on color television monitors. A paint program that uses Kubelka–Munk theory to mix real pigments is presented. Theories of color matching with pigments are extended to determine reflectances for use in realistic image synthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)305-335
Number of pages31
JournalACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG)
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 10 1992


  • color matching
  • color science
  • color selection
  • illumination modeling
  • pigment mixing


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