Modeling, Design, and Testing of a Linear Electric-Hydraulic Conversion Machine for Electrification of Off-Highway Vehicles

Anvar Khamitov, Jenny Swanson, James Van De Ven, Eric L Severson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Electrification and hybridization of off-highway vehicles have the potential to yield significant fuel savings and air emissions improvements. However, developing the required components to electrify these systems is an extremely challenging task due to high force and power density requirements and highly variable drive cycles. This article investigates a new approach to off-highway vehicle electrification based around a linear piston pump integrated into a linear actuator. The article first reviews linear actuator machine topologies within the context of the charge pump application requirements. A tubular machine topology is optimized for integration with a hydraulic pump and experimentally validated using a prototype machine. A multiphysics simulation framework is developed to simulate the entire charge pump design with a position regulator. An optimized design is proposed with an oscillation frequency of 132 Hz and a total system efficiency (pump and motor) calculated to be 81.3% at full load.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9380505
Pages (from-to)2449-2459
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received November 27, 2020; accepted February 19, 2021. Date of publication March 17, 2021; date of current version May 19, 2021. Paper 2020-EMC-1478, presented at the 2019 Energy Conversion Congress & Exposition (ECCE), Baltimore, MD, USA, Sep. 29–Oct. 3, and approved for publication in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the Electric Machines Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society. This work was supported in part by the Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power (an industry sponsored research consortium), in part by an industry-sponsored research consortium, and in part by the NFPA Pascal Society. (Corresponding author: Anvar Khamitov.) Anvar Khamitov and Eric L. Severson are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 USA (e-mail:;

Publisher Copyright:
© 1972-2012 IEEE.


  • Hydraulic pump
  • linear machine
  • multiphysics modeling
  • optimization
  • oscillating machine
  • piston pump


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