Background: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. 40% of X-ALD patients will convert to the deadly childhood cerebral form (ccALD) characterized by increased permeability of the brain endothelium that constitutes the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Mutation information and molecular markers investigated to date are not predictive of conversion. Prior reports have focused on toxic metabolic byproducts and reactive oxygen species as instigators of cerebral inflammation and subsequent immune cell invasion leading to BBB breakdown. This study focuses on the BBB itself and evaluates differences in brain endothelium integrity using cells from ccALD patients and wild-type (WT) controls. Methods: The blood-brain barrier of ccALD patients and WT controls was modeled using directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into induced brain microvascular endothelial cells (iBMECs). Immunocytochemistry and PCR confirmed characteristic expression of brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) markers. Barrier properties of iBMECs were measured via trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), sodium fluorescein permeability, and frayed junction analysis. Electron microscopy and RNA-seq were used to further characterize disease-specific differences. Oil-Red-O staining was used to quantify differences in lipid accumulation. To evaluate whether treatment with block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) could mitigate defective properties, ccALD-iBMECs were treated with PEO-PPO block copolymers and their barrier properties and lipid accumulation levels were quantified. Results: iBMECs from patients with ccALD had significantly decreased TEER (2592 ± 110 Ω cm2) compared to WT controls (5001 ± 172 Ω cm2). They also accumulated lipid droplets to a greater extent than WT-iBMECs. Upon treatment with a PEO-PPO diblock copolymer during the differentiation process, an increase in TEER and a reduction in lipid accumulation were observed for the polymer treated ccALD-iBMECs compared to untreated controls. Conclusions: The finding that BBB integrity is decreased in ccALD and can be rescued with block copolymers opens the door for the discovery of BBB-specific molecular markers that can indicate the onset of ccALD and has therapeutic implications for preventing the conversion to ccALD.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Research reported in this study was supported by the University of Minnesota and NHLBI R01AR063070. C.A.A.L was supported by NIH T32 GM113846. H.S.S. is a recipient of the NSF Graduate Research fellowship (Grant Number #00039202).
- Amphiphilic block copolymers
- Brain microvascular endothelial cells
- Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC)
- In vitro human blood-brain barrier (BBB) model
- Trans-endothelial electrical resistance